Osmanlı padişahlarından 2. Murat’ın döneminin İngilizce olarak açıklanması, anlatımı, tanıtımı. 2. Murat İngilizce hayatı.
Murad II (1404 1451)
At the accession of Murad II, the eldest son of Mehmed, insurrection broke out as two pretenders laid claim to the Ottoman throne. These insurrections, both of which failed, are indicative of the profound malaise of the state, which for a quarter of a century had won no spectacular victories nor substantially enlarged its territories; but they also show a general acceptance of the Ottoman house as the manifest head of the state, so that even revolt had to be given a legitimist basis.
The Christian powers, too, availed themselves of the internal difficulties of the Ottomans for their own purposes: Venice, with its superior maritime power, strengthened its hold on the Dalmatian and Aegean coastline, while Hungary made exertions to bring the Balkan provinces under its own hegemony. Nor did Asia fail to add to the anarchy: it was not until 1425 that southwest Anatolia was regained from a local rebel, and the Karamanoğlu, frequently as allies of the Christian powers in Europe, were unrelentingly menacing until their defeat in 1437.
A treaty of peace with Hungary in 1428 allowed for a concerted drive against Salonika, where since 1423 the Venetians had been holding out against the Ottomans. The fail of this city in 1430 was as important for the prestige it brought as for the strategic advantages it assured in the Aegean. But the victory was to be overshadowed almost at once by revolts in Albania, which proved to be but the prelude to a general rising of the Balkan and Danubian principalities, beginning in 1434. A campaign in Anatolia against the Karamanoğlu, which lasted from 1435 to 1437, allowed the situation in Europe to deteriorate further.
In 1441 the great Hungarian national hero Jânos Hunyadi began the reconquest of the Balkans, while the other great figure of the period, George Castriota (Scanderbeg), in 1443 rought the whole of Albania into open revolt. Murad was obliged to sue for peace with the Hungarians, renouncing many of his Balkan conquests, while in Anatolia even the Karamanoğlu were able to exact humiliating terms from him as the price of remaining nonaggressive. But in December of 1444 the tide of fortune again turned in favor of the Ottomans: the Balkan alliance suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Varna, and in 1448 Hunyadi was again routed on the famous field of Kosovo. The Turks were to remain supreme in southeastern Europe for the next four centuries.